Scholarly Books and Articles about Color Vowel® and Blue Canoe®

Ahmad, K. (2016). Integrating pronunciation with vocabulary skills. In T. Jones (Ed.), Pronunciation in the classroom: The overlooked essential (pp. 1-16). Alexandria, VA: TESOL Publications.

Brinton, D. (2019). Innovations in pronunciation teaching. In O.Kang, R. I. Thomson, & J. M. Murphy (Eds.), The Routledge Handbook of Contemporary English Pronunciation (pp. 449-461). New York, NY: Routledge.

Castillo, D., Marin, O., & Barroeta, L. (2019). Efectividad del uso del Color Vowel Chart como recurso didáctico para la pronunciación del inglés. Revista Academia, 18(41), 39-47. View bilingual abstract.

Nguyen Sakach, A. (2022). “Learning Technology Review: Blue Canoe,” CALICO Journal (Computer Assisted Language Instruction Consortium). Flagstaff AZ: Equinox Publishing.

Taylor, K., & Schneider, C. (2017). “The Color Vowel Chart: Teaching Pronunciation to Beginning-Level Adults.” In J. Murphy (Ed.), Teaching the pronunciation of English (pp 285-306). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Wallace, L., & Fernandez, S. (2019). Teaching Tip: Personalizing peak vowel training in stressed syllables: A sneak peek at Blue Canoe for perception and production. In J. Levis, C. Nagle, & E. Todey (Eds.), Proceedings of the 10th Annual Pronunciation in Second Language Learning and Teaching Conference (pp. 423-433). Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.

Yaw, Kate (2020). Technology review of Blue Canoe. In In O. Kange, S. Stapes, K. Yaw, & K. Kirschi (Eds.), Proceedings of the 11th Annual Pronunciation in Second Language Learning and Teaching Conference (pp. 360-367). Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press.

Academic Endorsements

“The Color Vowel Chart is a new, game-changing perspective for language teachers.”

— Dr. Deborah Healey, Professor Emeritus, University of Oregon


“The Color Vowel approach reflects exactly what my research findings suggest: that the primacy of stress is key to the promotion of intelligibility, and our instructional priorities in L2 pronunciation should focus on how to teach stressed syllables and related characteristics. It promotes a hierarchical structure in the effect of the pronunciation features on learners’ oral proficiency.”

— Dr. Okim Kang, Professor of Applied Linguistics/TESL and Director of the Applied Linguistics Speech Lab, Northern Arizona University


“With the time-saving Color Vowel Approach, my students and I share both a common language to refer to vowel sounds and a multi-modal approach to understand word stress and phrasal stress. By describing ‘circumference’ as ‘mustard’ and ‘circumstance’ as ‘purple,’ my students are able to understand and learn English rhythm and pronunciation confidently.”

– Dr. Lara Wallace, Ohio University


The Color Vowel® Chart and Color Vowel® Approach

Annotated Bibliography

Research Supporting the Science behind the Color Vowel® Approach

Stress and vowel quality

“Without a sufficient, threshold-level mastery of the English prosodic system, learners’ intelligibility and listening comprehension will not advance, no matter how much effort is made drilling individual sounds.”


Categorical Perception: How our brains inhibit the noticing of L2 sounds

Eimas PD, Siqueland ER, Jusczyk P, Vigorito J. (1971) Speech perception in infants. Science. 171:303–306

Liberman, A.M., Harris, K.S., Hoffman, H.S., & Griffith, B.C. (1957). The discrimination of speech sounds within and across phoneme boundaries. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54, 358-368.

Werker, J. F., & Tees, R. C. (1984). Cross-language speech perception: Evidence for perceptual reorganization during the first year of life. Infant Behavior & Development, 7(1), 49–63.


Kinesthetic effects on speech perception and production

“The systematic use of body movement is essential to effective and efficient pronunciation instruction. That has never been more relevant than today, with the general de-emphasis on pronunciation and introduction of technology into the field.”

  • Dr. William Acton, Professor Applied Linguistics; MA TESOL Program Director, Trinity Western University


Eimas, P. D. (1991). Comment: Some effects of language acquisition on speech perception. In I. G. Mattingly & M. Studdert-Kennedy (Eds.), Modularity and the motor theory of speech perception (pp. 111-116). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

Fowler, C. A., & Dekle, D. J. (1991). Listening with eye and hand: Cross-modal contributions to speech perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 17(3), 816–828.

Liberman, A. M., & Mattingly, I. G. (1985). The motor theory of speech perception revised. Cognition, 21, 1-36.

Sheldon, Amy Louise, with Winifred Strange (1982). The acquisition of /r/ and /l/ by Japanese learners of English: Evidence that speech production can precede speech perception. Applied Psycholinguistics, 3(3), 243-61.


Research basis for priming and flooding

“Neural networks corresponding to memories and all their connected associations arise in response to the stimuli that arrive to the brain. The robustness of long-term memories is directly related to the number of repetitions.”

  • Dr. Olle Kjellin, speech and learning expert formerly of the Research Institute of Logopedics and Phoniatrics at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Tokyo.

Kjellin, O. (n.d.). Choral practice -The neurophysiological opportunist’s way. Retrieved February 5, 2018

Kuhl, P. K. (1993). Innate predispositions and the effects of experience in speech perception: The native language magnet theory. In B. de Boysson-Bardies, S. de Schonen, P. Jusczyk, P. McNeilage, and J. Morton (Eds.), Developmental neurocognition: Speech and face processing in the first year of life, (pp. 259-274). Dordrecht, NL: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Kuhl, P. K. (2000). Language, mind, and brain: Experience alters perception. In M.S. Gazzaniga (Ed.), The new cognitive neurosciences (2nd ed., pp. 99-115). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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